A look in the manufacturing methods of non-woven fabrics
In order to develop and finish products to your satisfaction, extensive expertise is needed for the the non-woven fabric material to be processed.
Depending on the method, different qualities result which are suitable for diverse or special application areas.
The following is a summary of the main points regarding non-woven fabric and the manufacturing of it:
Basically, non-woven fabric is an area-measured textile material consisting of fibres. In contrast to a woven fabric, the non-woven fibres result in a loose cohesion, which comes about through the fibres own stabilisation.
As a raw material, non-woven fabric is classified according to fibre types and their origins. A distinction is essentially made between natural fibres (e.g. cotton) and chemical fibres (e.g. natural polymers such as cellulose, synthetic polymers, such as polyamide; polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, aramid and fibre mixtures).
The production of non-woven fabric begins with the flat or voluminous arrangement of fibres. These can exist of staple fibres (packed in bales or in sacks) or filaments (spunlaid from molten polymer granules).
There are basically three different ways to form a web of non-woven fibres:
- the drylaid process: web by airlaid or carding
- the wetlaid process: suspension of short fibres on a screen belt
- the spunbond process: extrusion of granules
- mechanical bonding (by needlepunching, hydroentanglement or calendering)
- chemical bonding (using added binders)
- thermal bonding (heated rollers or hot air stream)
Typical fields of application of, e.g.
- mechanically bonded needle punch include filter media, upholstery material, medical applications (e.g. compresses), backing (e.g. footwear), automotive (e.g. backmoulding non-woven for interior parts), orthopaedics or washing gloves
- chemical or binder-bonded non-woven include liquid filtration, medical applications as a backing for paving pads, surgical drapes and backings for the shoe industry, as well as dry and wet wipes
- thermally bonded non-woven include coating and transfer non-wovens for feminine and infant hygiene products, incontinence products, moist lotion wipes, backings or filter media
- spunbond non-woven include various hygiene products, baby nappies, bandage materials or triangular bandages
Non-woven fabrics are being constantly developed to better adjust their properties to the customer's wishes. For this, there are a number of methods, which go hand in hand with the bonding process or subsequently affect the material. Non-woven fabrics can in this way be equipped as, e.g. conductive, fire-proof, water-repellent, anti-static, air-permeable or absorbent. Non-woven fabrics are available coated, printed, flocked or coloured.
It is clear that non-woven fabric is a universal material with special characteristics, used in the most diverse industrial sectors - whether in the automotive or filtration industry, in the cleaning area, cosmetics or in health-care systems.
An absolutely trendy material - today and in the future!
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