Glossary

A

Airbag

Airbags to protect occupants, used, for example, in case of a collision for the retention of people as a safety device in vehicles, e.g. front, head and side airbags.

Airlaid

Airlaid cellulose fibres, which thanks to their suction volume and elasticity, are used in the manufacture of consumer goods.

Anti-pilling finish

Finishing process to prevent pilling - mechanically by singeing, shearing or grinding or by impregnation of textiles with film-forming agents, e.g. with acrylic or vinyl polymers. 

Antibacterial

Antimicrobial property of a product to prevent the development or proliferation of bacteria (bacteriostatic) or to eliminate any existing bacteria (bactericide). 

Antimicrobial

Property for killing fungi and microorganisms, such as bacteria, (bactericidal, fungicidal) or preventing its development or reproduction (bacteriostatic, fungistatic).

Antistatic finish

Method for preventing and reducing electrical charging of textiles, especially those made of synthetic fibres.

Aramid fibre (AR)

High-performance synthetic fibres made of aromatic polyamides. 

Arthroscopy cloth

Medical surgical drape for sterile covering, for example, in knee arthroscopy procedures. 

Atlas

Lapping or binding of warp knits. The number of machine courses in one direction including a reverse course lends the Atlas its designation of "number of rows", such as four-row Atlas. 

B

bactericide

Killing effect of substances, such as antibiotics or disinfectants that damage the cells of the pathogen (bacteria/germs) so much that they destroy them. 

Bandage

Soft and elastic bandages wound dressings with a textile surface which assumes various functions, such as protection from contamination, support and relief of joints, fixing bandages, fixation and immobilisation of body parts with sprains, strains or tendosynovitis.

Bandage pack

Sterile packaging gauze bandage for dressing a wound. 

Binder solidification

Solidification of the fibres or filaments (fibres of any length) into a non-woven fabric by chemical and thermal processes. The adhesive effect is achieved in that the fibres are surrounded by a binder liquid or by means of a binder powder that is activated thermally or by a solvent.

BOPP

Biaxially oriented polypropylene = oriented polypropylene which is additionally stretched in the transverse direction.

Breathability

Water vapour permeability.

C

C-fold

The C-fold is first folded in the middle, then both sides inward (to a C).

Carder

Machine  for producing a carded sliver from fibre flocks.

Carding

Disentangling of the fibre flocks to single fibres and formation of a fibrous web by carding.

Cellulose

Organic material from β-glucose molecules which serves to strengthen plant cell walls. Cellulose is the major constituent (~ 50%) of vegetable fibres.

Chemical bonding

Bonding of the web through the addition of binders.

Chemical finishing process

Textile auxiliary agents are specifically applied to textiles to impart specific properties to the textile. The application of the auxiliary agents to the textile is done by coating, dipping, spraying, fogging.

Clean room

Room with a low concentration of airborne particles. For the operation of a clean room, particle measurements are performed after construction and during operation which form the basis for a classification of the purity of the room according to a standard (clean room classes). 

Coating

Single or double-sided application of liquid or pasty materials, usually plastics (coating polymer) on ​​a textile backing, the so-called substrate. 

Composite material

Material of at least two connected materials which has different properties than its individual components.  

Compress

Combined pieces of gauze as a base for a pressure bandage. 

Contract manufacturing

Manufacture or acquisition of certain products or jobs as third parties in accordance with the requirements of the client who transfers these jobs or production  as a means of outsourcing. 

Converting

Distribution or arrangement of raw or semi-finished goods into ready-to-use, pre-defined and dimensioned end pieces, for example, by cutting or punching.

Cotton

Natural textile fibre from the group of seed fibres. The cotton has the highest cellulose content of all plant fibres (without water about 95%) and no wood components.

Cotton pads

Round, oval, square or rectangular cotton pads (loose structure of self-adhesive fibres). 

Cotton stretch yarn

Very stretchable and elastic core yarn with a core of spandex and a cotton fibre wrap spinning. 

Cotton wool

Padding and absorbent material of medical textiles. Cotton wool has a high storage capacity for liquids, a good stamina and excellent padding properties through its degreasing and a random-oriented fibre structure.

D

Disinfection

The placing of materials in a state where they can no longer infect (contaminate).

Drylaid

Fibrous web using airlaid or carding.

Drylaid process

Non-woven formation by carding or aerodynamic method (airlays) using flocks made from natural, chemical or inorganic fibres.

F

Fibre

Thin and flexible structure that can only absorb tensile forces but not pressure forces. In nature and technology, fibres usually occur in a larger compound and a specific structure.r.

Filament

Individual fibre of any length.

Finishing

Group of finishing processes which give the fabric better use properties or the final character in terms of visual appearance, handling or drape. 

First aid products

Are products for first aid for the quick asistance and care of injured persons e.g. after accidents. Examples include bandages, emergency blankets, triangular bandages, plasters...

Folding

Creation of a sharp bent edge (fold line, fold breakage) without the aid of a tool. 

Folding/Creasing

Creation of a sharp bent edge (fold line, fold breakage) using a tool. Without the aid of a tool, the process is called folding.  

G

Gate fold

With a gate fold, the outer parts of the fold sheet are folded without an inward overlap to inside. The gate fold has six sides. An additional break in the centre of the sheet results in the eight-page gate fold. 

Geotextiles (=geotechnical textiles)

Made from synthetic fibres, permeable non-woven fabrics, textiles or composites which are used for filters, drains, separation, reinforcement, packaging and protection.

Grammage

Degree of paper or fabric  thickness using the m² weight.

H

HDPE

Polyethylene "high density": Thermoplastic material with high-density (0.94 g/cm3 - 0.97 g/cm3

Hose bag

A film consisting of a sealing and backing layer. The sealing layer of the hose bag film consists mostly of PE, PP or polyamide and is responsible for the welding of seams and the resulting durability of the bag. The backing layer is a composite film and is composed mainly of polyester, polypropylene and polyamide. These substances ensure that no oxygen gets into the shrink-wrapped product.

Hydrophilic

Water absorbent, water-soluble

Hydrophobic

Water repellent, water-insoluble. 

Hygienic handwash

Hygienic hand washing is the method for cleaning hands with bactericidal effectiveness (except mycobacteria).

L

Layers (2-ply, 3-ply)

Material thickness. The number of layers (can be the same or different) give information on the material thickness.

M

M-Fold

Longitudinal fold with three edges - two in one direction and one in the opposite direction. When set on the edges, an "M" is visible.

Mechanical bonding

Solidification of the web by needling or by water jet method.

Mechanical finishing process

The surface of the fabric is changed using mechanical processes, such as milling, raising, singeing, shearing or calendaring.

Mini grip bag

A resealable, transparent plastic bag (= ziplock bag).

Monofilament

Plastic yard with virtually endless length, consisting of only one  thread (filament).

N

N-Fold

Longitudinal fold with two edges in opposite directions. When set on the edges, an "N" is visible.

needle punch

Bonding of laid or random-oriented non-woven fabric by needling. Felting needles pierce through the non-woven so that fibres are formed into fibre bundles. The frictional connection between the fibres results in the bonding to a needle-punched non-woven fabric.

non-sterile

not germ- and virus-free.

Non-Woven

Is a textile area-measured material which consists of fibres. In contrast, woven textiles, knitted or crocheted fabrics are made from yarn.

non-woven fabric

Area-measured material of individual fibres. In contrast, woven textiles, knitted or crocheted fabrics are made from yarn. 

O

OP surgical draping system

The OP surgical draping systems include a variety of components, such as surgical drapes, fenestrated drapes or fenestrated split drapes and underpads. 

P

Pad printing

Printing process wherein the ink is transferred by means of an elastic pad made of silicone rubber from the printing plate to the object to be printed.

Perforation

A piercing of the non-woven fabric which facilitates the separation from the roller. The regular arrangement, quantity, shape and size of the holes play a crucial role.

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate = Thermoplastic material - prepared through polycondensation.

Polyamide

A piercing of the non-woven fabric which facilitates the separation from the roller. The regular arrangement, quantity, shape and size of the holes play a crucial role.

Polyester (PES)

Polymeric compounds with high wear resistance, tear resistance, abrasion resistance, light fastness and abrasion resistance.

Polyethylene (PE)

A thermoplastic material which is derived from petroleum and natural gas. It has a waxy, soft surface.

Polymers

Compound of macro-molecules consisting of the same or different basic building blocks.

Polypropylene (PP)

Weldable plastics with high hardness, rigidity and heat resistance, which can be disposed in an environmentally friendly manner.

Private Label

Products, which are usually produced by a company or made available to be offered under the brand name of another company. 

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene = polymer of carbon and fluorine.

Punching

Production of so-called die-cuts or shaped pieces made of thin material using a press or on impact machine and a special cutting tool. 

Q

Quarternary ammonium compounds

Organic ammonium compounds with quaternary nitrogen atoms, in which all four hydrogen atoms of the ionic compound (salts) are replaced by organic residues as a binding partner. 

R

Rescue blankets

Thin, waterproof, tear-resistant polyester film with an aluminium coating to prevent hypothermia in emergency patients. 

Respiratory masks

Contact barrier for rescue breathing during first aid measures such as mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. The direct contact with the respiratory tract between helper and recipient is avoided.

S

Screen printing

Printing process where the printing ink is pressed through  a fine mesh screen onto the fabric to be printed. 

Spring open angle

Measurement for testing the creasing property of a substance. It indicates the angle formed between two previously folded fabric surfaces once they are no longer loaded and open by springing back. 

Spunbond

A random non-woven fibre consisting of polymers is bonded using two heated rollers or a steam flow. With bonding by rolling, usually one of the two rollers has an engraving that consists of dots, short rectangles or diamond-like dots. The threads fuse at the contact points forming the non-woven fabric.

Spunlace (water jet method)

Bonding of the fibres or filaments by water jets to a matted non-woven material (mechanical or hydrodynamic method).

Stand up pouches

Lightweight, volume and cost-saving and environmentally friendly packaging with a wide range of applications and many specially coordinated forms and finishes. 

sterile

Germ-free = free of viruses and micro-organisms, barren.

Surgical drape

Multilayer (usually 2 or 3-ply) cloth in different sizes to cover parts of the body during surgery or treatments. The cloths are usually coated on one side (e.g. PE) as a barrier against liquids and germs. 

T

Tear-resistance

Certain material property which is measured based on the length at which a freely hanging cross-section tears from the surface of a material due to its own weight force at the fastening. 

Thermal bonding

Bonding of the web by softening in a suitable gas flow between heated rollers or in a stream flow.

Thermoformed packaging

Packaging which is manufactured by the tensile compression reshaping of plastic or film into a one-sided open hollow bodies or a pre-coated hollow body. 

Triangular bandage

Non-sterile bandages in the form of a roughly right-angled and isosceles triangle (according to DIN 13168-D 136 cm/96 cm). The triangular bandage is part of a first aid kit and is mostly used for first aid as a fixing aid, padding or as support.

Tuberculozide

Killing effect of substances on tuberculocidal pathogens. 

U

Ultrasonic welding

A method for connecting thermoplastic or metallic materials.  The required heat is generated by a high-frequency mechanical vibration which is transmitted to the parts to be processed under pressure and results in the fusing of the materials. 

V

V-Fold (=quarter folded)

Longitudinal fold with one edge. When set on the edges, a "V" is visible. 

Virucidal

Deactivating viruses or virus-killing. Virucidals are substances that serve to inactivate viruses, i.e. viruses or damage their nucleic acid so greatly that they kill or inactivate the pathogen.

Viscose

Fibres which are industrially produced based on cellulose. Sawdust is cooked with chemicals to extract the cellulose. Then, the cellulose is processed to form a viscose paste with water, sodium hydroxide and carbon disulphide and bonded through spinnerets to viscose yarn.

W

Washing gloves

Three-sided, sealed bag, e.g. made of non-woven fabric for cleaning surfaces or for body cleaning which avoids direct contact with another person,  thus helping to prevent the transmission of germs. Main use in hospitals and nursing homes, but also in the household for personal hygiene.

Water jet method (Spunlace)

Bonding of the fibres or filaments by water jets to a matted non-woven (mechanical or hydrodynamic method).

Web

After carding (aligning of loose textile fibres) of individually disentangled and oriented aligned fibres which are loosely joined together by interlocking of the fibre ends.

Wetlaid

Suspension of short fibres on a screen belt.

Wetlaid process

Suspension of short-dispersible fibres with a liquid onto a screen belt. After the withdrawal of fluid, the fibres form a random non-woven fabric.

Wettability

Wetting = property of textiles dependent on the interfacial surface tension of the fabric, the liquid and the surface structure. 

Wipes

Simple wipes which are available in dry or wet version - usually for home cleaning.

Working width

Indicates the width on the textile machines on which the fabrics are produced. For stitch-forming machines, this is the distance between the two outer working needles of a needle bed. It is measured from needle centre to needle centre. This distance corresponds to the width actually used on the nominal width of the machine.

Wound dressing

Low microbiological contamination, usually sterile and non-shedding bandages for wound care - for external wounds, to prevent the penetration of foreign bodies into the wound and absorb blood and wound secretion. There are wound dressings for both dry and moist wound treatment. 

Woven

Woven fabric made from intercrossing threads.

Y

Yeasticidal

Kills yeasts such as Candida albicans ⇒ Disinfectants from the family of fungicides.

Z

Z-fold

Once left, then right; with the Z-fold, two or more parts of the folded sheet are folded in alternating directions. This results in a zigzag-like fold.